Continuing our discussion of tactics, today I’d like to talk about my recent diff on hls-tactics-plugin. I learned a deep lesson about writing software in this commit and wanted to share the insight.

Some background before we get started. The hls-tactics-plugin is capable of automatically generating small snippets of Haskell code. Like how, near the end of a proof, mathematicians will throw their hands in the air and say “the remainder is obvious,” we’d like to empower software engineers in the same way. The idea is for the computer to pick up where you left off, and fill in expressions that have a uniquely best solution (for some meaning of “best”.) In practice, it works quite well.

To make this happen, we need to know the desired type at the hole to be filled, as well as what’s in scope, and various other pieces of metadata — such as what’s already been used and where values came from. The record for this data is called the Judgment, and originally looked like this:

data Judgment = Judgment
{ _jHypothesis        :: Map OccName Type
, _jAmbientHypothesis :: Map OccName Type
, _jDestructed        :: Set OccName
, _jPatternVals       :: Set OccName
, _jPositionMaps      :: Map OccName [[OccName]]
, _jAncestry          :: Map OccName (Set OccName)
, _jBlacklistDestruct :: Bool
, _jWhitelistSplit    :: Bool
, _jIsTopHole         :: Bool
, _jGoal              :: Type
}

As you can probably tell, this data structure grew organically, one field and feature at a time. The only truly necessary fields are _jHypothesis and _jGoal, the first of which tracks what’s in scope and its type, and the second tracks the type we’re currently trying to synthesize a value of. The rest of this stuff is used exclusively for intelligently narrowing the exponentially large space of possible solutions we could generate. They’re necessary for getting fast/good results, but in essence, just track heuristics that in practice help get the right answer. There’s no theoretical justification for them. As such, these fields are properties of the implementation, not of the domain.

This is an extremely important realization. Fields like _jDestructed and _jAncestry are exploded views on our data. They exist in a non-compositional form, serving only to the ad-hoc queries I’ve thought of today, and are likely unhelpful for whatever search heuristic I decide to implement next. To illustrate this, _jPatternVals tracks which values came from bindings in a pattern match (useful for generating structurally-smaller recursive terms), while _jAncestry tracks if a value is descendant from another in some way. And _jDestructed records whether or not we’ve already pattern matched on any particular values. Clearly, there is a lot of overlap in these fields. Taken in aggregate, they feel like a myopic, denormalized representation of data provenance.

As a general rule, I tend to have a great distrust in denormalized representations. By their very nature, they blur the notion of source of truth — whom should you believe if your denormalized data sources disagree with one another? Furthermore, almost no human domains are intrinsically denormalized; it simply isn’t how our brains our wired — we like to think in deep notions of identity. These concerns together suggest that denormalized representations are, again, artifacts of the implementation, rather than meaningful carved joints in reality. Worse, it’s hard to initialize a non-empty denormalized system. Making sure all of the data sources agree is a bigger source of bugs than sprinkling sugar on your kitchen floor.

All of this is to say: why not just model the data provenance in Judgment directly? With that as an explicit source of data, it’s trivial to reimplement the fields like _jAncestry et al. as views over the real datastructure.

This is a greatly under-appreciated feature of Haskell’s record system. Because field selectors are just functions whose input is the record in question, there is no syntactic difference between them and arbitrary functions over the same record. Most other languages enforce a syntactic difference between class fields and class methods, which is where the mutator method pattern comes from. Like most software patterns, this one too is unnecessary in Haskell.

Instead, we can just remove the _jAncestry field from Judgment, and then implement a function _jAncestry :: Judgment -> Map OccName (Set OccName) which computes the desired view from the data provenance. Amazingly, all calling code will just work, and doesn’t need to know that the underlying datastructure has changed.

Of course, the usual zealots will point out that the runtime performance will have changed through this transformation. And that’s probably true, but what’s also almost certainly true is that it doesn’t matter. It’s extremely unlikely that this field is the linchpin of my algorithm’s asymptotics, so don’t worry about it unless it becomes a problem. And if it does, I’m sure you can find a clever way of caching this field without confusing the fact that it is a view on data, and not data itself.

The crux of my change was to rip out all of my data views and add provenance to the hypothesis. The diff is delightfully red:

 data Judgment = Judgment
-  { _jHypothesis        :: Map OccName Type
-  , _jAmbientHypothesis :: Map OccName Type
-  , _jDestructed        :: Set OccName
-  , _jPatternVals       :: Set OccName
-  , _jPositionMaps      :: Map OccName [[OccName]]
-  , _jAncestry          :: Map OccName (Set OccName)
+  { _jHypothesis        :: Map OccName (HyInfo Type)
, _jBlacklistDestruct :: Bool
, _jWhitelistSplit    :: Bool
, _jIsTopHole         :: Bool
, _jGoal              :: Type
}

Six denormalized fields replaced with one normalized source. This is already a huge improvement in terms of engineering confidence. The relationship between the many maps and sets of OccNames in the old system is inevitably going to be under-documented and implementation-defined. Even as the guy who wrote each of those features, I doubt I’d be able to create a well-formed Judgment by hand.

The next step was to implement HyInfo, which tracks the type and provenance of a value in the hypothesis:

data HyInfo a = HyInfo
{ hi_provenance :: Provenance
, hi_type       :: a
}

To define Provenance, I added a data constructor for each different sort of value that I was aware of. By explicitly tagging all of this data, we can attach the previously-denormalized data that must exist, ensuring the entire datastructure is correct by construction.

data Provenance
= TopLevelArgPrv
OccName   -- ^ Binding function
Int       -- ^ Argument Position
| PatternMatchPrv
PatVal
| ClassMethodPrv
Class
| DisallowedPrv
DisallowReason
Provenance

The arguments to PatternMatchPrv have been factored out into their own type, because pattern values are especially interesting and require further processing, outside the scope of this post. Of particular interest is DisallowedPrv, which we’ll discuss in a moment.

In the hls-tactics-plugin codebase, we made judicious use of a helper function withHypothesis :: (Map OccName Type -> Map OccName Type) -> Judgment -> Judgment. Functions which, for example, wanted to introduce new values into the hypothesis (such as after pattern matching) would call withHypothesis and directly insert their values. If we wanted to exclude values from the search space, we’d just withHypothesis . Map.filter them out. The result was lots of call-sites directly fiddling with the state in unprincipled ways. Nobody actually needed the full power of Map OccName Type -> Map OccName Type; it just happened to be the only convenient way of manipulating the hypothesis.

I removed withHypothesis, and instead replaced it with semantically meaningful functions, like introduceLambdaValues, introducePatVals and disallowUsageOf. The implementations hadn’t changed, but now they were encapsulated into a function call, rather than be scattered about at call sites.

The disallowUsageOf function is particularly interesting.

Besides the importance of normalization, this change taught me one other thing: the necessity of reifying your reasoning. Ollie Charles presents an excellent example of this in Who Authorized These Ghosts, but I’d never fully appreciated the technique until now. The gist of it is that it’s important not just to track state, but also to track why you believe the state is what it is. In Ollie’s example, he’s tracking authorization status (a boolean,) but to prevent security holes, his application internally requires a token proving the user is allowed to act. This is parsing, not validating taken to the extreme; programmers are required to produce a token to call privileged functions, and the only way of obtaining that token is by checking the authorization state.

The disallowUsageOf function, and corresponding DisallowedPrv provenance constructor above fill a very similar role.

Attentive readers will have noticed that the _jDestructed field is not truly a measure of provenance. In fact, it’s tracked exclusively to prevent production of code of the form:

case x of
Blah -> case x of
Blah -> case x of
Blah -> ...

However, a good heuristic when writing Haskell code is that if possible, a value should be used exactly one time. To a first approximation, we can produce a view of _jDestructed by checking to see if any PatternMatchPrv is a decedent of the value in question. However, this doesn’t work for types that don’t contain product types. For example, the matches of Bool are True and False; neither of which would produce a PatternMatchPrv.

But because _jDestructed is used only to prevent pattern matching, it filled a similar role to filtering out hypotheses via withHypothesis. In both cases we could have simply removed the value from hypotheses, and having removed it from the source of truth of what’s in scope would certainly prevent it from ever being used. But this also wreaked havoc with tracking provenance, as removing the value would also remove its provenance, so downstream children would become orphaned and wouldn’t know where they came from.

On the surface, this looks like a bug, but I don’t think it’s a bug in the true sense. Instead, this is a problem of insufficient reification. Removing a value from the in-scope set is again an exploded view of the data. It’s again not a feature of the problem, but the implementation. What we’d instead like to track is that a particular value is disallowed, rather than non-existent. And once something is declared disallowed, if we track the reason, later code can reevaluate for themselves whether that judgment is still a reasonable means for exclusion.

At the end of the day, I exposed a function jHypothesis :: Judgment -> Map OccName (HyInfo Type) (not _jHypothesis — note the underscore!) which pro-actively filtered out all of the DisallowedPrv values in the _jHypothesis. This means the data that the entire program sees is itself a view on the real datastructure. Internally we can track disallowed values, and externally we don’t show the disallowed values unless explicitly asked for.

The result of all this refactoring is a delightfully simplified codebase. Its core datastructure is now correct-by-construction, meaning it’s impossible to produce an inconsistent value that was so common under the old formulation. Furthermore, no call-site needs to change; appropriate views on the data exist as shunts, invisible massaging the new datastructure into the old. These call-sites can (and should) be cleaned up to use the new datastructure more directly, but that can happen incrementally in subsequent changes. And best of all, our new data representation is infinitely more useful. Because it models the problem domain rather than the peculiarities of the implementation, it can be reused for future features. While the size of the old datastructure was O(n) in the number of features, this new one is O(1).

If you enjoyed this post, please consider picking up a copy of my new book Algebra-Driven Design. In it, you’ll learn techniques like this one to dramatically improve the quality, maintainability, and reusability of your software.